Growing research evidence supports HIV antiretroviral treatment as a key aspect of HIV prevention. The aim of HIV antiretroviral treatment is to prevent HIV from replicating in the body, thereby lowering viral load to an undetectable level. This not only benefits the individual by improving long term health outcome for people living with HIV (as it lowers the amount of virus in the blood and subsequent damage to the immune system), but it also substantially reduces the risk of passing on HIV to a sexual partner. HIV antiretroviral treatment is therefore proving to be an additional prevention risk reduction strategy for a person living with HIV. A second aspect of treatment as prevention includes options for an HIV-negative person to take treatment in the form of PEP or PrEP to prevent the acquisition of (getting) HIV.