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An examination using a small medical instrument called an endoscope (tube and camera) that permits direct visualisation to see inside internal organs, to check their condition and look for any signs of disease. Endoscopes are inserted either directly into the digestive tract (gastroscopy); throat (oesophagoscopy); respiratory tract wind pipe and lungs (bronchoscopy); urinary tract/bladder (cystoscopy); colon/bowel/anus (colonoscopy, anoscopy); or through very small incisions in the skin to look at other body parts. Endoscopes are also used to help perform surgery and to remove tiny amounts of tissue (biopsies) from internal organs for further medical examination.