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A examination using a small instrument called an “anoscope” to examine the anal canal. This device is used by a doctor to look for haemorrhoids, anal fissures (small tears or splits in the anal wall) and anal lesions. Anal lesions may or may not progress to cancer. If cancerous lesions are suspected, follow on diagnosis and treatment will be recommended by your doctor. It is recommended that HIV-positive men in particular ask for an anal examination by their doctor at least annually.